Kinetic properties of phosphodiesterase isoenzymes Km (μM) Vmax cGMP Isoenzyme cAMP cGMP Vmax cGMPI. In addition treatment with the compound is indicated to be of benefit for the treatment of functional disorders resulting from disturbed brain function following ischaemia. Alternatively, for the preparation of compounds of formula (I) wherein R6 is SO2 R5, it is preferable if an organic base is used, such as triethylamine or pyridine. The nature and amount of base and the amount of the compound of formula (V) can be important in determining the product produced in the reaction between compounds (IV) and (V). 102(e) Date Jul. m/e 430 (MH+, 30), 277 (60), 215 (59), 185 (100) and 75 (98). Contraindications. All assays were linear with time of incubation and concentration of enzyme over the range used in these experiments. In many instances, doxapram was administered following administration of xanthine derivatives such as caffeine, aminophylline or theophylline. The reaction mixture was poured into water, acidified with dilute hydrochloric acid and extracted into ethyl acetate. C20 H20 N5 O4 F3 S requires C, 49.68; H, 4.17; N, 14.49; S, 6.63%. Methylxanthines increase cAMP, which will increase cardiac inotropy. Xanthine is involved in human physiology and is an intermediate in the production of uric acid. In one aspect the invention provides a compound of formula (I) or, if appropriate, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein R1 and R2 each independently represent an alkyl group or a moiety of formula (a): --(CH2)m --A (a). Protecting groups may be prepared and removed using the appropriate conventional procedure: For example, alkylsilyl protecting groups may be prepared by treating the compound of formula (II) with an appropriate alkylsilyl halide, for example trimethylsilyl chloride for trimethylsilyl groups and t-butyldimethylsilyl chloride for t-butyldimethylsilyl groups. 1960, Hiromu Morishita: `Xanthine-type sulfonamide derivatives.`, MARY E. MC CARTHY (KING OF PRUSSIA, PA, US), Click for automatic bibliography Methylxanthines are a class of drugs that can be used in the treatment of acute asthma episodes. Compositions may also suitably be presented for administration to the respiratory tract as a snuff or an aerosol or solution for a nebulizer, or as a microfine powder for insuffiation, alone or in combination with an inert carrier such as lactose. The activity of this isoenzmye was unaffected by the Ca2+ -calmodulin complex. A compound of formula (II) may be prepared by reacting a compound of formula (VIII): ##STR7## wherein R1a and R2a are as defined in relation to formula (II), with a reagent capable of substituting the C-8 hydrogen of the compound of formula (VIII) with a group R9a wherein R9a represents R9, as defined above in relation to formula (II), or a group convertible thereto; and thereafter, if required carrying out one or more of the following optional steps: (ii) when R9a is not R9, converting R9a to R9. Dyphylline. 60. Relaxes bronchial smooth muscle, causing bronchodilation and increasing vital capacity, which has been impaired by bronchospasm and air trapping; in higher concentrations, it also inhibits the release of slow-reacting substance of anaphylaxis (SRS-A) and histamine. Preferably, A represents a cyclopropyl group. Caution with non-K+-sparing diuretics. High levels of uric acid may cause gout attacks or kidney stones. Preferably, a small excess of base is used in the reaction between compounds (II) and (III), for example 1.1 to 1.3 moles of base per mole of the compound of formula (II). What is a methylxanthine (xanthine)?They are inhibitor drugs that indirectly increase the amount of cAMP in smooth muscles. Preferably, Rs and Rt each represent hydrogen. What are the two main drug classifications of xanthines?Theophylline and caffeine. WO/9211260 PCT Pub. As a Respiratory Therapist, this is a medication that you are required to be familiar with. This book (in paperback format) has sample TMC Practice Questions on the topic of Pharmacology. 15. 4. Compete to inhibit phosphodiesterase. 8-Amino-1,3-di-(cyclopropylmethyl)-7-(3,4-dimethoxy-benzenesulphonyl)xanthi. Data sources include IBM Watson Micromedex (updated 7 Dec 2020), Cerner Multum™ (updated 4 Dec 2020), … Contraindications to the administration of adenosine history of bronchospasm or asthma persistent hypotension (systolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg) ... not taking xanthine derivatives (aminophylline) not having caffeine-containing products for 24 hours prior to … wherein R13 is alkyl or a benzyl group substituted or unsubstituted in the phenyl ring and L4 represents a leaving group, such as a halogen atom, for example a bromine or chlorine atom. Xanthine derivatives . What includes less toxic side effects of theophylline therapy?Headache, diuresis, tachypnea, palpitations, and vomiting. generation, Trifluoroalkyl, fluorobenzyl, pentafluorobenzyl, fluorobenzenesulfonyl, and pentafluorobenzenesulfonyl theophyllines, <- Previous Patent (Quinoline derivative...). Status asthmaticus is an acute exacerbation of asthma that remains unresponsive to initial treatment with bronchodilators. What three conditions increase theophylline blood levels?Pneumonia, corticosteroids, and Beta-blockers. Sodium hydride (0.35 g of a 60% suspension in oil, 8.7 mmol) was added to a suspension of 8-amino-1,3-di(cyclopropylmethyl)xanthine (2 g, 7.3 mmol ) in dimethoxyethane (40 ml) and the resulting mixture stirred at ambient temperature for 2 hr. to the dark solution to give a precipitate. Where appropriate, small amounts of other anti-asthmatics and bronchodilators, for example sympathomimetic amines such as isoprenaline, isoetharine, salbutamol, phenylephrine and ephedrine; corticosteroids such as prednisolone and adrenal stimulants such as ACTH may be included. 34. The resolved PDEs were separately rechromatographed on a 1 ml Mono Q column. The crude residue was purified by column chromatography over silica in 2-5% methanol/dichloromethane to afford 1,3-di(cyclopropylmethyl)-8-(4-methoxybenzenesulphonylamino )xanthine (0.50 g, 31%) as a white solid>200° C. B. Uncontrolled cardiac dysrhythmias. 73. Suitably, R3 represents hydrogen, a halogen atom, a group of the abovedefined formula NRs Rt, or a moiety of the abovedefined formula (b), especially a group of formula NRs Rt and a group of formula (b). The xanthines have many minor side effects (anxiety, nervousness, tremor, headache, dizziness) but are largely well tolerated in the doses used to treat asthma and chronic bronchitis. Xanthine derivatives. 20 ml samples of blood, taken from the tail vein of the rats, were added to 10 ml of Isoton II and, within 30rain, Zapoglobin (3 drops) was added, to lyse the erythrocytes. 20. Anticholinergic contraindications Methylxanthine (Xanthine) derivatives o Aminophylline (Somophyllin), theophylline (Theo-Dur), caffeine Action: relaxes smooth muscle of bronchi Promotes bronchodilation Use: Oral theophylline for chronic stable asthma … What is the current recommended blood serum theophylline level for the management of asthma?5-15 ug/mL. νmax (KBr) 3457 (w), 3432 (w), 1701 (m), 1645 (s), 1502 (s), 1355 (m), 1274 (m), 1172 (m), and 756 (w) cm-1. Favourably, A represents a substituted or unsubstituted C3-8 cycloalkyl group, especially a C3-6 cycloalkyl group. wherein m represents zero or an integer 1, 2 or 3 and A represents a substituted or unsubstituted cyclic hydrocarbon; R5 represents a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group; and R6 represents hydrogen or a group SO2 R7 wherein R7 represents a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group; and R4 represents an alkyl group or a benzyl group substituted or unsubstituted in the phenyl ring. The silyl protecting groups may be removed by treatment with t-butylammonium fluoride in a suitable solvent, such as tetrahydrofuran conveniently at an ambient temperature. The activity of this isoenzmye was unaffected by the Ca2+ -calmodulin complex. Preferably, R1 and R2 both represent a moiety of formula (a). 1. The isoenzyme could hydrolyse both cAMP and cGMP, the former was the preferred substrate. 1 H NMR δ(CDCl3): 0.4-0.52 (8H, m) 1.19-1.29 (2H, m), 3.85 (4H, overlapping dd, J:7.7 Hz) 3.96 (3H, s), 3.98 (3H, s), 6.28 (2H, brs), 6.97 (1H, d, J=8.8 Hz), 7.78 (1H, dd, J=8.8, 2.2 Hz), 7.98 (1H, d, J=2.2 Hz); Found C, 53.03; H, 5.13; N, 14.68; S, 6.74.C21 H25 N5 O6 S requires C, 55.04; H, 5.30; N, 14.73; S, 6.74%, 8-Amino-1.3.di(cycloproylmethyl)-7-(2,5-dimethoxy-benzenesulphonyl)xantine. 43. 67. 8. 17. V. Contraindications. This property results in an increase in the nutritional blood flow through ischaemic skeletal muscle which in turn indicates that the compounds of the invention are of potential use as agents for the treatment of peripheral vascular disease such as intermittent claudication. Particular, examples of substituents for any aryl group represented by R5, include methoxy, especially 4-methoxy: Also included is nitro, especially 4-nitro. 3. The active compound may be formulated for administration by any suitable route, the preferred route depending upon the disorder for which treatment is required, and is preferably in unit dosage form or in a form that a human patient may administer to himself in a single dosage. What are the uses of xanthines?Asthma management, COPD management, and Apnea of prematurity. 3.88 (6H, s), 3.88 (4H, t(overlapping d), J=7.0 Hz, 5.50 (2H, s), 6.82 (4H, d, J=9.0 Hz), 6.88 (2H, d, J=9.0 Hz) 7.27 (2H, d, J=9.0 Hz), 7.69 (4H, d, J=9.0 Hz); m/e 121 (100%), 155 (55), 564 (50), 735 (M+, 45), 172 (30); Found C, 57.19; H, 4.95; N, 9.57; S, 8.61. 119°-120° C. νmax (KBr) 3461 (m), 3320 (m), 1702 (s), 1652 (s), 1602 (m), 1500 (s), 1379 (m), 1357 (m), 1277 (m), 1174 (m) and 698 (m) cm-1. There are 3 types of bronchodilators used to treat asthma. Why do we titrate theophylline doses?Individuals metabolize theophylline at different rates and difficult to determine therapeutic doses. wherein m represents zero or an integer 1, 2 or 3 and A represents a substituted or unsubstituted cyclic hydrocarbon radical; R3 represents NO2 or a halogen atom, an alkoxy group or a group of formula NRs Rt wherein Rs and Rt each independently represent hydrogen or alkyl or Rs and Rt together with the nitrogen to which they are attached form a phthalimido group, the phthalimido group being substituted or unsubstituted in the phenylene moiety; and R4 represents a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group. The compositions of the invention may be in the form of tablets, capsules, sachets, vials, powders, granules, lozenges, suppositories, reconstitutable powders, or liquid preparations such as oral or sterile parenteral solutions or suspensions. When used herein, unless otherwise indicated the term `aryl` includes phenyl and naphthyl optionally substituted with up to five groups, preferably up to three groups, selected from halogen, alkyl, phenyl, alkoxy, haloalkyl, hydroxy, ammo, monoalkylamino, bisalkylamino, monoalkylcarbonylamino, bisalkylcarbonylamino, nitro, nitrile, carboxy, alkoxycarbonyl, alkoxycarbonylalkyl, alkylcarbonyloxy and alkylcarbonyl groups. (0.77 g, 17%) m.p. 29. What condition do premature neonates have to use theophylline and caffeine for treatment?Apnea. Sci. A solution of 4-methoxybenzenesulphonyl chloride (0.77 g, 3.75 mmole) in dimethoxyethane (3 ml) was slowly added over 5 min. C19 H21 N5 O4 S requires C, 54.92; H, 5.10; N, 16.86; S, 7.72%. OVERDOSE Signs And Symptoms. Xanthine Derivatives Action: cause bronchodilation by increasing levels of energy-producing substance cAMP. Suitable substituted or unsubstituted aryl groups include substituted or unsubstituted phenyl groups. Adverse Reaction. 6.36 (2H, brs), 7.58 (2H,t, J=8.0 Hz), 7.69 (1H,t,J=7.0 Hz), 8.21 (2H,d,J=7.0 Hz). Contraindications: hypersensitivity to the components of the drug, pregnancy and lactation. (decomp.). Suitable substituents for any alkyl group include those mentioned in regard to aryl groups. 36. Drug allergy. Formulary Information. In one convenient form of the abovementioned process the compound of formula (VIII) is reacted with a suitable nitrating agent to provide a compound of formula (II) wherein R9 represents a nitro group and then converting the nitro group into a halogen atom or a group of the abovedefined formula --NRs Rt, suitably via the halogen atom. Brand names: Theochron, Elixophyllin, Theo-24; and, formulations: tablets, capsules, syrup, elixir, extended-release tablets, capsules, and injections. Apnoea of prematurity is a diagnosis of exclusion. Theophylline relaxes bronchial smooth muscle by inhibition of the enzyme phosphodiesterase and suppresses airway responsiveness to stimuli that cause bronchoconstriction. The following are the sources that were used while doing research for this article: Disclosure: The links to the textbooks are affiliate links which means, at no additional cost to you, we will earn a commission if you click through and make a purchase. What is the current recommended blood serum theophylline level for the management of COPD?5-10 ug/mL. 5.14 Xanthine Derivatives Open Resources for Nursing (Open RN) Theophylline is a xanthine derivative. m/e 176 (100%), 413 (40), 329 (35), 121 (25), 77 (15), 676 (MH+, (3.5), 557 (3.5). Two xanthine derivatives with high affinity and high selectivity for adenosine A 1 receptor, 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX) (Lohse et al., 1987) and its analog 8-dicyclopropylmethyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (KF15372) (Shimada et al., 1991), were selected as lead compounds for in vivo imaging. Beta adrenergic agonist contraindications Drug allergy Such diseases include: psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, non-specific dermatitis, primary irritant contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, basal and squamous cell carcinomas of the skin, lamellar ichthyosis, epidermolytic hyperkeratosis, premalignant sun induced keratosis, non-malignant keratosis, acne, and seborrheic dermatitis in humans and atopic dermatitis and mange in domesticated animals. 3.82 (3H, s), 7.23 (1 d, J=9.10 Hz), 7.90 (1H, dd, J=9.10 Hz, 2.75 Hz), 7.90 (2H, brs), 8.14 (1H, d, J=2.50 Hz) m/e 176 (100%), 413 (45), 329 (30), 391 (28), 107 (24), 307 (19), 524 (MH+, 10), 526 (MH+, 10); Found C, 45.86; H, 4.25; N, 13.30; S, 6.08;C20 H22 BrN5 O5 S Requires C, 45.81; H, 4.23; N, 13.36%; S 6.11%. Table 8-1 lists xanthine derivatives, brand names, and available formulations. These compounds may also have a protective effect against the consequences of cerebral metabolic inhibition. You can now get access to our Cheat Sheet Database for FREE — no strings attached. Concomitant xanthine derivatives, steroids, or diuretics may potentiate hypokalemia. 1 H NMR δ(CDCl3): 0.22-0.50 (8H,m), 1.13-1.29 (2H,m), 3.70 (2H, d, J=7.5 Hz), 3.86 (2H, d, J=7.15 Hz), 3.93 (3H,s), 6.20 (2H, br s), 7.72-7.78 (3H, m), 8.70-8.82 (1H,m). When R4 represents substituted benzyl, suitable substituents include alkoxy groups, especially methoxy groups, particular examples include 4-methoxyphenylmethyl and 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenylmethyl. Contra-Indications. Check mild interactions to serious contraindications for up to 30 drugs, herbals, and supplements at a time. Aminophylline ( *** ) - @ Xanthine derivatives- (1999) Indication Type Description: Drug Interaction. xanthine derivatives xanthine derivatives Prior art date 1982-07-28 Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. The compound can be sterilized by exposure to ethylene oxide before suspending in the sterile vehicle. Neufil, a xanthine derivative, is a bronchodilator used for relief of acute bronchial asthma and for reversible bronchospasm associated with chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Both these factors will impair the oxygen supply-demand ratio to the myocardium. 6. EP 0389282 discloses a series of 8-substituted xanthines useful in the treatment of disorders of the respiratory tract. 64. Oral liquid preparations may be in the form of, for example, emulsions, syrups, or elixirs, or may be presented as a dry product for reconstitution with water or other suitable vehicle before use. The reaction mixture was allowed to cool and then water (1 ml) was added dropwise. What four main side effects of theophylline?Restlessness, supraventricular tachycardia, hypotension, and nausea. Example Inhibition of PDE expressed as IC. Probability values were calculated using the Student's t test. 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